Accidental Ascendant - A device employed by Evangeline Adams whereby to draw Horary interpretations from a natal Figure. In applying this method one determines the Ascendant for the moment the question is propounded, and rotates the Figure until this degree occupies the East point.

 

Accidental Dignity See 'Dignities'

 

Acronycal: Said of the rising after sunset, or setting before sunrise, of a planet that is in opposition to the Sun, hence in a favorable position for astronomical observation.

Acronycal place: The degree the planet will occupy when it is in opposition to the Sun.

 

Active Influence: That which results from an aspect between two or more astrological factors or sensitive points, thereby producing the action that can materialize in an event.

 

Adept: One who has attained to proficiency in any art or science. It may be said of a skilled astrologer who, through spiritual development, has attained to superior powers and transcendental knowledge concerning the origins and destiny of mankind. Formerly said of an alchemist who had attained the 'great secret' - presumably that concerning the 'transmutation of metals'. Its modern application is to the transmutation of unfavorable cosmic stimuli and the baser emotions into nobler impulses - thereby achieving the triumph of mind over matter, and of the spiritual over the carnal.

 

Adjusted Calculation Date: A term used in reference to a directed or progressed horoscope, as indicating the date on which the planet culminates. Also termed Limiting Date. See 'Directions'.

 

Advantage, Line of: A term sometimes used with reference to the position of the Moon's Ascending Node in a Geocentric Figure. The line of advantage runs between the cusps of the third decanates of the Third and Ninth Houses. A position of the Node East of this line is judged to be favorable.

Related to it are the Arcs of Increased and Dwarfed Stature. From the middle of the First House, clockwise to the middle of the Eighth House, is the arc of Increased Stature, with its peak at cusp of the Twelfth House; and from the middle of the Seventh House, clockwise to the middle of the Second House, is the Arc of Dwarfed Stature, with its peak at the cusp of the Sixth House. See Nodes, Moon's.

 

Affinity: A binding by mutual attraction. The Sun is said to have an affinity with all the planets; Mars with Venus, in a magnetic or physical sense; Venus with Jupiter, in a philanthropic sense as one who loves his fellowman; Venus with Mercury, in an artistic sense.

 

Afflicted: (Afflicted by / in affliction with): Unfavorably aspected. Loosely applied to: (a) any inharmonious aspect to a planet, or (b) to any aspect, particularly the conjunction, parallel, square or opposition, to a malefic planet. Also by some authorities applied to a mundane or zodiacal parallel with, or when, besieged by both Infortunes (q.v.). Some authorities consider that the sensitive degree on any House cusp can be afflicted, though any such consideration must be confined to instances where the birth-moment is known to a certainty.

 

Ages, Astrological: As anciently considered, a period of roughly 2150 years during which the point of the Spring Equinox recedes through one sign of the Zodiac of Constellations. Since the constellations have no precise boundaries, the points of beginning and ending are mere approximations.

However, it is an absurdity to date the beginning of the precessional cycle, of presumably 25,800 years, from the particular time in history when it was decided no longer to treat the Equinox as a moving point, but instead to freeze it at 0º Aries. It is probably that midway between the Equinoctial points are the Earth's Nodes, where the plane of its orbit intersects that of the Sun, at an inclination of approx. 50º; but since the Equinoctial Point is now considered as a fixed point and the motion takes place only within its frame of reference, it appears that a study of the circle which the celestial pole describes around the pole of the Ecliptic will be required in order to determine when it passes an East point, to mark the time of beginning of the first of twelve astrological ages of 2150 years each, into which the precessional cycle is subdivided. On this manner of reckoning the Earth might now be in the Capricorn Age, as well as any other. At least there is no justification for us to consider mankind as now in the Aquarian age, even though a recent astronomical treatise speaks of the Signs of the Zodiac as 'now precessed some 25º west of the constellations of the same name'. Historical records show the Equinox as having once began in Taurus, at which time Taurus was considered to be the first Sign of the Zodiac. See 'Precession'.

 

Air Signs: The mental or intellectual signs: Gemini, Libra, Aquarius. Considered collectively, sometimes termed the Air asterism.

 

Albedo: Literally, whiteness. A measure of the reflecting power of a planet, in ration to its absorptive capacity; expressed in a figure which represents the amount of light reflected from an unpolished surface in proportion to the total amount of light falling upon it.

The albedo of the Moon and Mercury is 7; Venus 59; Earth 44; and Mars 15. Thus, the changeable character manifested by Moon and Mercury is seen to be connected in some way with their low reflective capacity.

An entirely different set of Lunar characteristics comes of the fact that as the Moon approaches an opposition to the Sun its surface temperature rises some 70-odd degrees above boiling point, and in consequence it emits a wide band of infra-red frequencies that are several times more powerful than any of the rays it reflects from the Sun. During the first few minutes of a Lunar eclipse, the surface temperature falls to a sub-zero level and the infra-red emanation ceases.

The dimly-lit surface of the Moon at the Lunation is due to light reflected back from the Earth, which with its high albedo would appear to the Moon-dweller as four times larger and many times brighter than the Moon as seen from Earth.

There are some indications that Jupiter emits a ray of its own in addition to its reflected ray, but astrophysicists are not as yet in accord on that point.

 

Almanac: A book or table containing a calendar of days, weeks and months, to which are added astronomical or other data. Its use dates back at least to the Alexandrian Greeks. The Roman almanac was the fasti - days on which business could be transacted.

The earliest of which we have concise record is that of Solomon Jarchus, 1150 A.D.. Purbach published one from 1450-6. His pupil Regiomontanus issues the first printed almanac in 1475. The most outstanding almanac maker of the Middle Ages was Nostradamus.

All English almanacs were prophetic until the year 1828; and until 1834 the stamp duty was 1s.3d. per copy. The first almanac in the U.S. was issued in 1639 by William Pierce. It was exceeded in popularity by Poor Richard's Almanac (1732-57) issued by Benjamin Franklin. Watkins Almanac, issued since 1868, has an annual circulation of upward of two million copies. The chief Astrological Almanacs of the present epoch are 'Raphael's', first published in 1820, and 'Zadkiel's', first published in 1830. All governments now issue an Ephemeris and a Nautical almanac. See 'Ephemeris'.

 

Almuten: The planet of chief influence in a Nativity by virtue of essential and accidental dignities. Its strength is estimated from: its intrinsic character; its Sign position where posited, its own Sign, or the Sign in which it is in exaltation; its harmonious aspects from favoring planets; and its elevated position in a geoarc Figure. A term of Arabian origin, seldom employed by present day astrologers.

 

Altitude: Elevation above the horizon, measured by the arc of a vertical circle. A planet is at meridian altitude when it is at the Midheaven, the cusp of the Tenth House.

 

Ambient: That which moves. A term loosely applied to the heavens. Milton speaks of the ambient air; Pope of ambient clouds.

Ptolemy used it to describe the tenth sphere that by its compelling force moved all other spheres with it from the East across the heavens. Since Copernicus exploded this concept, the modern astrologer is free to apply this excellent term to the Earth's surrounding magnetic field as varyingly charged by virtue of the cycles of the planets, the Sunspot cycle, and other cosmic phenomena.

 

Anahibazon: Arabic term for Caput Draconis (q.v.).

 

Anareta, n., anaretic, a. (Gr., destroyer). The planet which destroys form; that which kills, if such a term may be applied to a planet that unfavorably aspects the hyleg (q.v.).

Anaretic Point. Anaretic Place. The degree occupied by the Anareta.

 

Androgyne, n., androgynous, a.: Hermaphroditic; having characteristics of both sexes. Said of the planet Mercury, which is both dry and moist.

 

Angels: The angels which were associated with the different planets. v. Planetary angels.

 

Angle: (L., a corner). Any one of the four cardinal points in a Figure, or map, of the heavens; variously referring to the Zenith, or South Vertical; the Nadir, or North Vertical; and the East and West horizons: the cusps of the Tenth, Fourth, First and Seventh Houses, or the Medium Coeli, Immum Coeli, Oriens (Ascendant) and Occidens (Descendant) of a Solar or, indeed, of any Celestial Figure. Usually identified as the Southern, Northern, Eatern and Western angles. They are the most powerful and important arcs in Astrology. Planets therein become immensely potent for good or ill, according to the nature of the planets and their aspects. The term may refer to the shape and position of the House as placed on the square maps employed by the ancient astrologers. v. Map of the Heavens.

Many depose that the Ascendant is the most powerful angle in any Figure, though Ptolemy gives preference to the Midheaven, or Zenith, since the celestial bodies are uniformly more potent in their effects at their meridian altitude than when rising.

 

Angstrom: A ten-billionth of a metre. Employed as a unit for measuring the wave lengths of light. Ten angstrom equal one millimicron. v. Wave Length.

 

Angular: said of a planet in an angle (q.v.) or in an angular House. The angular Houses bear a correspondence to the Cardinal Signs, and planets therein posited are materially strengthened, though whether beneficially or adversely depends upon the nature of the planet itself as also upon the nature of the aspects it receives from other planets in the Scheme.

 

Angular Velocity: The angle through which a planet sweeps in a unit of time. Technically, the daily motion of a planet, expressed in degrees and minutes of arc, is its Angular Velocity.

 

Anomaly: The angular distance of a planet from its perihelion or aphelion.

 

Anipathies: The unaccountable aversions and antagonisms people feel toward each other when positions in their Nativities are in conflict. Among the causes of such conflict are the luminaries in dissociate Signs, or in inharmonious aspect to one another; the Ascendants in opposition Signs; the Infortunes conjunct or in inharmonious aspect to the luminaries, or to each other, or in opposition from angular Houses.

Sometimes loosely applied to planets seen in an inharmonious relationship through an adverse aspect, whereat they are considered to bear an anipathy to one another.

Antipathy: Disharmony of two bodies, usually planets, which rule or are exalted in opposite Signs. For example, Saturn ruling Capricorn has an antipathy for the Moon, ruling Cancer.

 

Antiscion: As modernly used in the so-called Uranian Astrology, it is the reflex position of a planet's birth position, in that degree on the opposite side of the Cancer-Capricorn axis, of which either 0º Cancer or 0º Capricorn is the midpoint. For example, the antiscion of a planet at 14º Capricorn is at 16º Sagittarius, which point becomes effective when occupied by another planet, or one in transit or by direction. As first used by Ptolemy the term is applied to two planets which have the same declination on the same side of the equator. One in the same declination on the opposite side was termed a contra antiscion. v. Parallel.

 

Antisedentia: An older term descriptive of retrograde motion.

 

Aphelion: v. Orbit.

 

Apheta: Prorogator. The planet or place that exercises an influence over the life and death of the native. v. Hyleg.

 

Aphorism: A short, pithy statement of a truth, presumably based on experience; the dictum of a wise man. Applied in Astrology to consciderations involved in the summing-up or synthesis of the various testimonies contained in the Figure. In interpreting a figure, or chart, consider the Signs as static forces; the planets as driving forces. The planets in the Signs show capacities that make for character, but the aspects, like verbs, denote action.

Neptune gives the answer to 'Who is he?'; Uranus to 'Why is he and what is his purpose?'; and the rest of the planets answer the question 'How will he fare?'

 

Apogee: v. Orbit.

 

Apparent Motion: In describing motions it is traditional to speak of them in terms of what they appear to be rather than what they are. The west wind personifies the wind that comes out of the west but which actually blows in an easterly direction. Because of the axial rotation of the Earth, the planets appear to rise over the Ascendant and travel across the meridian to the west, while they actually travel in the opposite direction. The Signs likewise appear to travel in a westerly direction while actually they do not travel at all. When we say the Sun is in Taurus, we are not actually speaking of the Sun's travel or of its position, but of the Earth's position and travel as measured by the Sun.

 

Application: n. Applying to; to apply. Said of a body in motion toward a point whence it will aspect another body. (v. Aspect.).

Applying, Retrograde: When the applying body is in retrograde motion. (v. Motion.)

Some authorities have used the term 'approach' as synonymous with 'apply'. The faster-moving body is said to be applying to an aspect of the slower-moving one. Precision in this regard might indcate, for example, that Saturn in direct motion could be applying to an aspect of Uranus, Neptune or Pluto only. Aspects are more powerful when forming than when separating. If either planet be retrograde, the influence is said to be injurious, or the promised result so subject to delay that it is of little value when it materializes.

 

Appulse: The near approach of one orbital body to another - a conjunction; the culmination at or crossing of the meridian. Applied particularly to the appulse of the Moon near to the Earth's shadow. v. Penumbral Eclipse.

 

Apsis, n. (pl., apsides). The points of greatest and least distance of a heavenly body from its centre of attraction. v. Orbit.

 

Aquarius. The eleventh sign of the zodiac. v. Signs.

 

Arabian Points, or Parts. Of the so-called Arabian Points, Fortuna, or the Part of Fortune, is the best known to modern astrologers, although its full significance is not generally realized. These Points tend to show that the Arabians understood the value of the Solar Houses -- those based upon the Sun's degree as the Ascendant, thence erecting twelve Houses consisting of successive thirty degree arcs. If any Figure be revolved to the point where the Sun's degree is on the Ascendant the Moon's position will coincide with the geocentric House position of Fortune; Mercury to the Point of Commerce; Venus to the Point of Love; and so on. Instead of revolving the Figure the Arabians gave rules whereby these planetary House-positions could be inserted in a Figure based on a birth-moment. Thus the Scheme showed each planet in two House-positions: one based on its relation to a rising degree, the other on its relation to the Sun itself. Naturally the rules for computing these locations infer a knowledge of the correct birth-moment. However, it is incorrect to assume that these points cannot be utilized when the birth-moment is unknown. On the contrary, a Figure erected with Aries 0 as an Ascendant can be more comprehensively interpreted by the use of most of the Arabian Points than in perhaps any other way. The so-called Solar Equilibrium system is entirely based upon the Arabian concepts. To utilize these Points without a known ascendant degree cast a Figure with Aries 0 as an Ascendant and proceed as follows:

 

Revolve the Figure until the Sun's degree is on the Ascendant, then divide it into Houses consisting of successive 30 arcs from that degree.

 

The Moon's position is the Part of Fortune and shows the lunar influence in shaping adult individuality and destiny, just as the Moon's relation to the rising degree shows the lunar influence upon the personality and the physical development of the early years.

Mercury's position is the Caduceus, or Point of Commerce.

Venus' position is the Heart, or Point of Love.

Mars' position is the Sword, or Point of Passion.

Jupiter's position is the Pomegranate, or Point of Increase.

Saturn's position is the Hour Glass, or Point of Fatality. This Point is also known as the Point of Love of Brethren, indicating those for whom one feels a sense of responsibility.

Uranus's position is the Lightning Flash, or Point of Catastrophe.

Neptune's position is the Trident, or Point of Treachery.

Pluto's position is the Gavel, or Point of Organization. (The last three are modern applications to utilize the three planets of modern discovery.)

 

Now revolve the Figure until the Moon's degree is on the Ascendant and continue.

 

The Sun's position is the Point of Spirit.

Mercury's position is the Point of Faith.

Venus' position is the Point of Female Children.

Jupiter's position is the Point of Male Children.

It is worthy of note that Mars and Saturn bore no relation to matters which come under the influence of the Moon.

 

With the Sun on the Ascendant, locate a point as far distant in a converse direction, as the Moon is distant in the order of the Signs. This is the Point of Spirit. Advance the Point of Spirit to the Ascendant and the Moon position becomes the Point of Merchandise.

 

Placing the Moon's dispositor -- the Ruler of the Sign in which the Moon is posited -- at the Ascendant, the Moon becomes the Point of Bondage.

 

Insert the position of the Lunation or Full Moon next preceding the day of birth, and place that on the Ascendant, and the Moon position locates the Point of Life.

 

Taking the Mercury position as an Ascendant, the Moon position is the Point of Servants.

Mars' position is the Point of Understanding.

 

Taking the Venus position as an Ascendant, the Moon position is the Point of the Mother.

Saturn's position is the Point of Fortune in Husbandry.

 

Taking the Mars position as the Ascendant, the Venus position is the Point of Plays.

Jupiter's position is the Point of Discord.

 

Taking the Saturn position as an Ascendant, the Sun position is the Point of the Father.

Moon position is the Point of Magistery and Possessions or the Point of Inheritance.

Mars' position is the Point of Sickness.

Jupiter's position is the Point of Brothers and Sisters.

Cancer 15 is the Point of Journeys by Water.

(Instead of rotating the chart, it is equally practicable to locate the Point of the Father, for example, by computing the arc from Saturn to the Sun, and if this is a 40 separation, say "The Sun is in a Second House position to Saturn, hence the Point of the Father is in the Second House.")

 

If you have an hour of birth from which to compute a Rising degree, mark the cusps on the circumference of the Figure and consider these additional Points:

With the Lord of the Second House as an Ascendant, consider the altered House-position of the cusps of the Second House. This is the Point of Goods.

With the Lord of the Ninth House as an Ascendant, consider the altered House-position of the cusp of the Ninth House. This is the Point of Travel by Land.

With the Lord of the Twelfth House as an Ascendant, consider the altered House-position of the cusp of the Twelfth House. This is the Point of Private Enemies.

 

With the Moon as an Ascendant, the cusp of the Eighth House becomes the Point of Death: the point where experience must crystallize into either regeneration or disintegration.

 

If the birth was at night, with the Sun below the Horizon, in Houses I to VII, put Jupiter on the Ascendant, and consider the House-position of Saturn as the Point of Brethren.

 

With the Venus-degree on the Ascendant, the cusp of the Seventh House is the Point of Marriage. Marc Jones suggests that with the cusp of the Seventh as an Ascendant, the Venus-position might be taken as the Point of Divorce.

 

With Saturn on the Horizon, the position of the Lord of the Eighth House is the Point of the "Most Perilous Year."

 

Finally, for the Point of Honorable and Illustrious Acquaintances, apply the Sun-Fortuna arc of the Geocentric Figure to a Solar Figure as follows:

If a night birth, usc the Sun as an Ascendant and consider the House-position of Fortuna. If a day birth, use Fortuna as Ascendant, and consider the House-position of the Sun.

 

The Point of the Father appears to be the Point of Sudden Advancement, except that if Saturn be combust Jupiter is to be taken as the Ascendant in considering the House-position of the Sun. The passing of the progressed Moon over the sensitive point in the radical Figure indicated by the Part of Fortune is supposed to stimulate all matters having to do with worldly possessions. It is generally supposed that it is also affected by aspects to this point -- according to the nature of the aspect, and of the aspecting body. This point is not commonly progressed, but Sepharial suggests that research might possibly show that the continuous adjustment of the point in its relationship to the Ascendant to accord with the changing relationship of the progressed Lights, would be productive of tangible results.

 

All these points are susceptible to stimulation or accent by Lunations, Full Moons, and Eclipses on these degrees, and by transit or progression of the planets over the arcs in which they are located. In short they represent just that many added points of sensitivity and receptivity.

 

For consideration in that connection, the traditional formulae for the locating of these points in the Geocentric, or birth-hour, Figure are as follows:

Fortuna: Asc plus Moon minus Sun.

Commerce: Asc plus Mercury minus Sun.

Love: Asc plus Venus minus Sun.

Passion: Asc plus Mars minus Sun.

Increase: Asc plus Jupiter minus Sun.

Fatality: Asc plus Saturn minus Sun.

Catastrophe: Asc plus Uranus minus Sun.

Treachery: Asc plus Neptune minus Sun.

Organization: Asc plus Pluto minus Sun.

Spirit: Asc plus Sun minus Moon.

Faith: Asc plus Mercury minus Moon.

Female Children: Asc plus Venus minus Moon.

Male Children: Asc plus Jupiter minus Moon.

Merchandise: Asc plus Fortuna minus Spirit. (Also Sorrow and Imprisonment)

Bondage: Asc plus Moon minus dispositor of Moon.

Life: Asc plus Moon minus Lunation or Full Moon next before birth.

Servants: Asc plus Moon minus Mercury.

Understanding: Asc plus Mars minus Mercury.

Mother: Asc plus Moon minus Venus. (Also Friends.)

Fortune in Husbandry: Asc plus Saturn minus Venus.

Play: Asc plus Venus minus Mars.

Discord: Asc plus Jupiter minus Mars.

Father: Asc plus Sun minus Saturn.

Inheritance: Asc plus Moon minus Saturn. (Also Magistery and Possessions.)

Sickness: Asc plus Mars minus Saturn.

Brothers and Sisters: Asc plus Jupiter minus Saturn.

Journeys by Water: Asc plus Cancer 150 minus Saturn.

Goods: Asc plus cusp of Second House minus Lord of Second.

Travel by Land: Asc plus cusp of Ninth House minus Lord of Ninth.

Private Enemies: Asc plus cusp of Twelfth House minus Lord of Twelfth.

Death: Asc plus cusp of Eighth House minus Moon.

Brethren: In a day-birth: Asc plus Jupiter minus Saturn. In a night-birth: Asc plus Saturn minus Jupiter.

Marriage: Asc plus cusp of Seventh House minus Venus.

Divorce: Asc plus Venus minus cusp of Seventh.

Most Perilous Year: Asc plus Lord of Eighth minus Saturn.

Honorable and Illustrious Acquaintances: In a day-birth: Asc plus Sun minus Fortuna. In a night-birth: Asc plus Fortuna minus Sun.

Sudden Advancement: Asc plus Sun minus Saturn. Or if Saturn be combust, use Jupiter.

 

There are other points or parts, both of ancient and modern origin, many of them seemingly based on the idea that should you have a good horse there need be no fear of riding him to death. For example, there is the Point of Honor: In a day-birth: Asc plus Aries 19 minus Sun. In a night-birth: Asc minus Taurus 3 minus Moon. To make clear the calculations incidental to the application of these formulae the following illustration is given:

 

Presume an Ascendant-degree of 15 Pisces, a Sun-degree of 28 Taurus, and a Moon-degree of 23 Gemini. Reduce these to signs and degrees as follows: The Ascendant degree is eleven Signs plus 15; the Sun is is plus 28; the Moon is 2s plus 23. Then

 

       To Ascendant......................... 11s 15

       Add Moon's position.................. 2s 23

                                                   13s 38º

And subtract Sun's position................1s 28

                                                   12s 10

           Subtract the circle...............12s      

     Fortune's degree is....................  0s 10 or 10 Aries.

 

To verify, note that the Moon is 25 distant from the Sun, and that Fortuna at 10 Aries is also distant from the Ascendant at 15 Pisces, by 25. Similarly, by substituting any planet's position for that of the Moon.

 

Without any of this calculation it is possible at a glance to note that this Moon-position would fall in the First Solar House; therefore Fortuna will tenant the First House of the Geocentric or Birth Figure. The directing of the Ascendant to Fortuna will coincide with the directing of the Sun to the Moon's radical position. Major transits to the Moon will be operative in one sense through the Sign and House of the Moon, and in another sense through the House-position of Fortuna - which is only another way of saying the Moon's Solar-House position.

 

These points are employed as longitudinal degrees along the Ecliptic; not as bodies having latitude and declination. Their chief value is as indicative of the Solar-House positions through which planetary influences will operate psychologically in a mature and developed individuality -- one which has arrived at a realization and acceptance of the destiny imposed by virtue of the radical Sun-position, rather than that of a Rising Sign which largely determines the physical development in early life.

 

To arrive at a thorough interpretation of directions to and transits over the degree held by an Arabian Point these should be synthesized with those over the planet from which the Point is derived. According to Sepharial "Ptolemy borrowed the symbol of Fortuna from the Arabs but applied to it his own reasoning, while Placidus, in an attempt to deal with it mathematically, improved it out of existence."

 

Arc. A portion or segment of a curved line, such as a circle, or ellipse. Hence the orbital distance separating two bodies, or between two points.

 

Arc of Vision. The least distance from the Sun at which a planet is visible when the Sun is below the horizon. Diurnal Arc. The arc through which the Sun passes from sunrise to sunset. At the Equinox this arc is 180, or 12 hours of right ascension. With increased latitude (distance away from the Equator) and nearness to the Solstices it becomes larger or smaller. Nocturnal Arc. That portion of 360, or 24 hours, which remains after subtracting the Diurnal Arc. Semi Arc. Diurnal and Nocturnal, Half of either the Nocturnal or Diurnal Arc, measured from the Midheaven or Imum Coeli to the horizon. Arc of Direction. The distance between a significator and the point where it forms an aspect with a promittor, measured in degrees and minutes of the Equator; distance from the place of a planet to the body of same, or to a point where an aspect will be formed thereto. It may be measured either in Sidereal Time according to Tables of Ascension, or in Right Ascension as computed by spherical trigonometry. In primary directions this Arc is translated into time in the proportion of one degree of arc to a year of time, or five minutes of arc to one month of time. (v. Directions.)

 

Ares. The Greek god of War and Pestilence: Son of Zeus and Hera, consort of Aphrodite. The Romans associated him with Mars, the enemy of tyrants and defender of the just.

 

Aries. The first sign of the zodiac. v. Signs.

 

Armillary Sphere. A skeleton sphere suggested by concentric rings which represent the relative positions of the celestial circles of the equator and the ecliptic revolving within a horizon and meridian divided into degrees of longitude and latitude. It was invented by Eratosthenes (q.v.), who by this means computed the size of the Earth, and inclination of the ecliptic to the equator; also the latitude of the city of Alexandria. The armillary sphere is frequently used as a decoration, such as the beautiful specimen cast in bronze and supported on the shoulders of Atlas, which adorns the entrance to Rockerfeller Plaza in New York.

 

Ascendant. The degree of the Zodiac which appeared on the eastern horizon at the moment for which a Figure is to be cast. It is often loosely applied to the whole of the Rising Sign and to the entire First House as well as specifically to the exact degree on the horizon. With reference to a Birth Figure it signifies properly the east point of the same, placed at the left thereof (v. Map of the Heavens); hence the Sign and the degree thereof are distinguished as the Rising Sign (q.v.) and the Rising Degree. A planet between the lower meridian and the eastern horizon is ascending by virtue of the Earth's rotation, but it does not arrive at the Ascendant until it reaches the last degree of the nocturnal semi-arc.

Old authority speaks of the Ascendant as the Horoscope, and of all planets in the eastern segment of the Figure as Ascendant planets since all are actually rising, but in course of time this term has become obsolete. Only those planets that are within orbs of a conjunction with the Rising Degree, or that are in the First House, are said to be in the Ascendant. Some authorities deem that a planet in the last 12 degrees of the Twelfth House should be interpreted as a First House planet.

 

Ascending. A term loosely applied to any planet on the eastward side of the line between the cusps of the Fourth and Tenth Houses, which by the diurnal motion of the Earth is rising in the heavens. More precisely it applies to a planet on, or near, the eastern horizon, or in the First House. A planet oriental and matutine to the Sun is said to ascend to the Sun. One that is occidental and vespertine to the Moon is said to ascend to the Moon. Ptolemy describes the luminaries, when so placed, as guarded.

A. Latitude. The increasing latitude of a planet moving toward the north pole of the Ecliptic.

A. Signs. v. Signs.

 

Ascension. The vertical rising of a planet above the Ecliptic, equator or horizon. Right Ascension, the circle of declination reckoned toward the east from 0 Aries, measured in the plane of the Equator. Oblique Ascension, measured on the Prime Vertical. The Midheaven is directed by Right Ascension; the Ascendant by Oblique Ascension.

Ascension, Signs of Long. Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius. (v. Signs.)

Ascension, Signs of Short. Capricorn to Gemini inclusive.

 

Ascensional Difference. The difference between the Right Ascension of any body and its Oblique Ascension: used chiefly as expressing the difference in time between the rising or setting of a celestial body, and six o'clock; or, six hours from the meridianal passage. To find this, add the log. tangent of the declination of the planet, to the log. tangent of the latitude of the place. The sum will be the log. sine of the Ascensional Difference. This added to the planet's Right Ascension, when in South declination (or subtracted, when in North declination), gives the Oblique Ascension of the planet. The reverse process yields the Oblique Descension.

 

Aspect. Anciently termed Familiarities or Configurations (q.v.). Certain angular relationships between the rays which reach the Earth from two celestial bodies, or between one ray and a given point: such as -- the horizon; the degree that was on the horizon at a given moment, or that represents the position of a planet at a given moment; the point on which an Eclipse or other celestial phenomenon occurred; the places of the Moon's Nodes; or the cusps of the Houses, particularly the First and Tenth.

 

Many factors enter into the delineation of the effect of an aspect: such as -- the nature of the aspect; the character of the planets involved, their latitude, character and rate of motion; their strength by virtue of their sign position; the measure of harmony that exists between the signs in which are posited, and between the signs they rule; and sundry other considerations. Various terms are employed to describe these factors.

 

Generally speaking, the term Aspect is applicable to any blending of rays that results in their interactivity. The body which has the faster mean motion is said to aspect the slower. As speed in orbit is relative to the size of the orbit, the inner planet aspects the one farthest removed from the Sun. Thus Venus aspects Saturn, not vice versa. There are exceptions, but only when other factors are involved. Transiting Saturn cannot pass over Venus, but Saturn can pass over the degree which Venus occupied on some former occasion, at which time its influence was sufficiently augmented to create a sensitive degree -- a Venus sensitivity. Thus when Saturn transits this degree, you receive a Saturn impulse through a Venus expectancy. This illustrates the two principal types of aspects: (a) mutual aspects -- those which occurred between two moving bodies on some specified date; and (b) directional, progressed or transitory aspects -- between a moving body, and a fixed point, usually the degree a planet occupied on a specified day of birth, when it became a sensitive point in a life pattern of daily expectancy and receptivity. The planet which "burned" its mark into your pattern, has moved away -- but the expectancy and receptivity lingers on.

 

Forming, is said of the conditions of motion which are bringing two bodies within each other's sphere of influence, whereby an exact aspect will result. After the aspect has become exact, the receding motion is termed Separating. Also, the faster planet may be spoken of as Applying to or Separating from an aspect or a contact with the other. When sufficiently within each other's Orbs of influence to be deemed operative - within half the sum of their two orbs - it is a wide or platic aspect, which culminates in an exact or partile aspect. An aspect computed forward in the order of signs, or counter-clockwise on the map, is a sinister or left-hand aspect; in the reverse direction, a dexter or right-hand aspect. There is lack of agreement as to which are the stronger, but ancient texts favor the dexter aspects.

 

ZODIACAL ASPECTS, those most widely considered, are measured in degrees along the Ecliptic. They are based upon fractional divisions of the 360-degree circle of the ecliptic - as measured in arc from the point of an observer on the Earth.

Conjunction. Said of two planets occupying the same degree of Longitude along the Ecliptic. It is often classed as a position rather than an aspect.

Dividing the circle by one-half, results in the Opposition, a 180 separation, the reverse of a conjunction.

Dividing the circle by one-third, results in the Trine, or 120 separation.

Subdividing the one-half aspect, there results the square, quadrate or quartile (90), Semi-square, semi-quadrate or semi-quartile (45), and the sesquiquadrate (135) - square plus semi-square - the inversion of the semisquare.

Subdividing the one-third aspect, yields the Sextile or Hexagon (60), Semi-sextile (30), and the Quincunx (150) - the inversion of the Semi-sextile.

 

The matter of Orbs is one that has never been settled. The figures given are merely an average of opinion:

 

                            Degrees      Operative

      Name          Signs  When Exact   From     To

Conjunction           0         0       - 10   + 6

Semi-Sextile          1        30         28    31º

Semi-Square           1½       45         42    49

Sextile               2        60         56    63

Square                3        90         84    94

Trine                 4       120        113   125

Sesquiquadrate        4½      135        132   137

Quincunx              5       150        148   151

Opposition            6       180        170   186

 

Names have been given to these Aspects, as follows: 0, Prominence; 30, Growth; 45, Friction; 60, Opportunity; 90, Obstacle; 120, Luck; 135, Agitation; 150, Expansion; 180, Separation.

 

Quintile. A group of aspects, introduced by Kepler, based on a division of one-fifth of the circle. They have had limited adoption, and their value is chiefly in directions. They are:

 

       Bi-Quintile........................ 144

       Tridecile.......................... 108

       Quintile (one-fifth of 360).......  72

       Decile or Semi-Quintile............  36

       Quindecile.........................  24

       Semi-Decile, or Vigintile..........  18

 

Combust. Said of a planet closer than 5 to the Sun. It introduces factors that considerably alter the interpretation of the conjunction.

 

Cazimi. A planet within 017' of the Sun's longitude is said to be "in the heart of the Sun" - or Cazimi. Ancient authorities deemed that it fortified the planet as much as a Combust position debilitated it; but modern authorities generally ignore the distinction and classify it as combust, imparting to the nature a one-track viewpoint on all matters appertaining to the planet so placed.

 

Abscission, or Frustration. When a planet is simultaneously forming an aspect to two other planets, the one that culminates first may produce an abscission of light that will frustrate the influence of the second aspect. The term was much used by ancient writers, but unfortunately has been neglected by modern astrologers -- other than those who practice Horary astrology. v. Frustration.

 

Benefic. The aspects based on 3 are said to be benefic in their influence, though much depends upon the character of the planets involved. The Trine joins harmonious signs; the Sextile, those reasonably congenial.

 

Malefic. Those based on 2, combine signs that are less congenial, and operate generally at cross-purposes, hence are termed malefic. Modern astrologers tend to prefer malefic aspects between harmonious planets, to benefic aspects between malefic planets - but this enters into the realm of interpretation where mathematics yields to psychology. A planet thus aspected, particularly if by a malefic planet, is said to be afflicted.

 

Latitude, Parallels of. Latitude is measured in degrees of arc N. or S. of the Ecliptic. It is reasonable to assume that planets conjoined in latitude as well as longitude will impart a stronger accent than when at different distances above the ecliptic. The Zodiacal Parallel is a latitudinal aspect. Older authorities considered a Parallel effective between one planet in North and another in South Latitude, but modern authorities largely agree that both bodies must be on the same side of the Ecliptic. Within orbs of 1 it is a powerful influence, greatly intensifying the effect of a conjunction. On rare occasions, when planets are close to their nodes of intersection with the ecliptic, a parallel may result in an eclipse between planets. The eclipse of a planet by the Moon is of more frequent occurrence, and is termed an Occultation (q.v.).

 

Declination, Parallel of. This is the same phenomenon as a Parallel of Latitude, except that longitudinal position is measured along the Equator in terms of Right Ascension, while latitudinal position is computed in terms of declination, measured in degrees N. or S. of the Equator instead of along the Ecliptic.

 

MUNDANE ASPECTS are those reckoned along the Equator, and measured in subdivisions of the nocturnal or diurnal semi-arc. For example: Any two planets that have a separation of two houses are in mundane Sextile; of four houses, in mundane Trine. Thus it is possible for two planets to be simultaneously in the mutual relationship of a mundane Trine and a zodiacal Square. Mundane aspects can be computed only on a map erected for a birth moment. They represent a computation of coincidental influences on a basis of time, in subdivisions of the Earth's period of rotation; instead of on a basis of degrees of arc, in subdivisions of the orbits of the bodies involved. Zodiacal Aspects, based on the degree of longitudinal separation along the ecliptic, are computed without reference to an hour of birth, and are the ones commonly employed in delineation.

 

Because of the alternation of signs of long and short ascension throughout the daily rotation of the Earth, equal units of arc rise over the horizon of an individual on the Earth's periphery, in disproportionate units of time; and vice versa. This affords one explanation of the phenomenon of the Orbs in reference to Aspects, and suggests that consideration should be given to the seasons at which a wide zodiacal aspect may become an exact mundane aspect.

 

Mundane Parallel. Parallel in Mundo. This has to do with a similarity of relationship between two planets on opposite sides of, and the same distance, measured along the Equator, from any one of the four angles of the horoscope. Mundane parallels bear no analogy to zodiacal parallels. A Rapt Parallel is a mundane parallel by direction, formed after birth, as a result of the Earth's rotation (axial), whereby the places of the planets are carried from East to West to the point where the two planets are equidistant from, and on opposite sides of the same angle. Another variety of mundane parallel by direction, is that formed when one planet advances to the same distance from an angle as that held by another planet at birth. These parallels are the invention of Placidus de Titus who held them in high esteem. Yet it appears that time tempered his judgment, for in his collection of Nativities he frequently employs zodiacal directions as taught by Ptolemy.

 

Strength of Aspects. The relative strength of aspects is a debatable factor, for so much depends on the intrinsic character of the rays. If you consider the rays as energy, each altered in character by virtue of the sign position of the planet from which it is emitted, the aspect determines the direction of the influence upon you as an individual. It is in the synthesis of qualitative, quantitative and directional factors that the practice of Astrology becomes both an art and a science.

 

Forming Aspects are considered more powerful than Separating Aspects; or at least the orb of influence is wider when forming. Some authorities make an exception in the case of the Sun and Moon, to the extent of placing the point of maximum influence from 2 to 5 degrees beyond the Degree in which the aspect becomes exact. There is the theory that separating aspects in the birth map represent influences which have already been made manifest; while forming aspects, particularly in the progressed map, represent influences which are yet to be experienced. Sepharial, in his Dictionary, has this to say regarding Separating Aspects: "When two bodies have been in exact aspect, the one which by its swifter motion moves away from the aspect, is said to separate from the other. When one of two bodies in aspect turns retrograde, it separates. When both bodies turn retrograde, doubtless a mutual separation is effected. In Horary Astrology these relations have distinct significations: the party representing the separating planet will decline the proposition, back out of the agreement, or annul the contract; the party represented by the retrograde planet will default in his agreement or contract; and when both turn retrograde there will be an annulment by mutual consent. Similar effects have been noted in regard to marriage."

 

Conjunction. This is classified as a constructive influence, though much depends on the nature of the planets. Modern authorities tend to reject the classification of aspects as good or bad, since a so-called bad aspect has constructive possibilities to an individual who has the strength of resolve to put it to constructive use.

 

Parallel. The same nature as a conjunction. Since it is usually coincident with a conjunction it serves to give it an added accent. This accent is helpful if it involves other aspects from favorable planets. The effect of a parallel is generally considered to be of longer duration than that of a conjunction.

 

Semi-Sextile (30). An aspect of mixed quality, rhythmically favorable but involving planets in inharmonious signs.

 

Semi-Square or Semi-Quartile (45). Generally termed a malefic aspect; somewhat mitigated, in case the aspecting planet is a benefic.

 

Sextile, Hexagon (60). A favoring aspect, involving planets in congenial signs of the same polarity (q.v.). Alan Leo says of the Sextile aspect: that it partakes of the nature of Moon and Neptune; that it is more combining than any other aspect, and is often more potent and favorable than the trine; that its color largely depends on the nature of the planets involved, and of the Signs they occupy; and that while the trine may be said to denote negative goodness such as a reward for past deeds, the sextile denotes positive good in that it generates the activity that produces change and thus possesses greater potentiality for the future.

 

Square. Quartile (90). Generally deemed unfavorable, since it represents the struggle of two forces at cross-purposes. It imposes severe tasks to be accomplished only through much concentration and self-denial -- often interpreted by the individual in terms of ambition.

 

Trine (120). Supposedly the most favoring of aspects, joining planets in congenial signs of the same element. Trines are like having "a silver spoon in your mouth" - luck becoming "happy-go-lucky" for lack of the ambition that is born of challenge.

 

Sesquiquadrate (135) Inversion of a Semi-square, and deemed equally unfortunate but less powerful.

 

Quincunx (150). The inversion of a Semi-Sextile. Ptolemy called it inconjunct, practically rejecting it as an aspect of appreciable force. Modern statistics appear to indicate, however, that it has unrealized possibilities. It is presumed to be mildly favorable, but as it operates through inharmonious signs the resulting influence must be somewhat contradictory.

 

Opposition (180). Proper interpretation must give consideration to the psychological stimulus resulting from whatever planetary influences are then in operation, from a sign and through a house.

 

Biquintile (144). Classed as a harmonizing influence.

 

Quintile (72). A mildly benefic aspect, but ineffectual when directed to malefic.

 

Semi-Quintile or Decile (36). Kepler deemed it a good influence, but mild.

 

Semi-Decile (18). Harmonious, but weak.

 

Inconjunct, Dissociate. These are terms sometimes applied to the Semisextile and the Quincunx aspects, as indicative that no relationship can exist between adjacent signs and houses, or between those which are one sign or house less than an opposition.

 

The aspects were anciently classified as benefic and malefic:

The benefic aspects were the Trine and Sextile. The conjunction is generally classed as a benefic aspect. In them the relationship is harmonious, between congenial signs, even though the influences related are often inharmonious -- because of the intrinsic nature of the rays so combined. They are deemed conducive of harmony, in that cosmic energy is released without obstruction.

The malefic aspects were the square and semisquare. The opposition is generally classed as malefic, even though it combines signs that are moderately congenial. These are generally deemed conducive of friction, in that two opposing forces challenge the individual's capacity for adjustment. There follows a condensed interpretation of the aspects:

 

According to the ancient philosophers two systems of force arc in operation, whereby Nature is maintained in a state of balance, and life enabled to manifest itself in physical form: These are the positive and the negative, the inflow and the outflow, the centrifugal and the centripetal, construction as opposed to destruction, expansion versus contraction. The result is a continual cycle of birth, maturity, decay and dissolution. Since these forces are equal, each complements the other.

 

All organic structures are builded of cells which in their simplest form are hexagonic spheroids, similar to those of the honeycomb. Therefore, the hexagon is the primary structural pattern of beneficence. When light enters at the external angle of 60, and the internal angle of 120, it necessarily illuminates all parts of the structure in equal lines of influence. The light that pours in at either of these angles, imparts exhilarating and harmonious vibrations which stimulate its continuous growth. Opposed to this is the process of crystallization, recognized in magnetism and electricity, wherein the two forces operate at right angles to each other - a geometrical relationship that is destructive to organic form. As a result, side by side through Nature two mutually antagonistic forces exist, which, despite their antipathy to each other, work together toward the ordered disposition of the whole: one based upon the quadrature, the other upon the hexagon - the square and the trine.

 

Astrology postulates: that the quadrate relationship between energy sources is destructive to form, through releasing the energy that is locked up in the various structures Nature has built; and that the trine aspects constitute the constructive side of Nature, whereby organic forms are created, nourished and perpetuated, to be released when subsequent destructive configurations are encountered.

 

Ancient astrologers who looked upon the Zodiac as representing the soul of Nature, divided it into four parts, making the beginning point of each part the apex of an equilateral triangle. Thus it obtained the twelve signs of the Zodiac and their corresponding Houses.

 

To establish a relationship between the physical body and these two systems of partitioning a sphere, one considers first that portion of the heavens which, like the physical body born into this world, is at that moment emerging from darkness into light; the eastern horizon - otherwise known as the Ascendant, the cusp of the First House; or as anciently termed, the Horoscope.

 

Aspectarian. A chronological list of all aspects formed during a specified period. Most astrology magazines acrry an Aspectarian for the concurrent month; and one for the year is now usually appended to the Ephemeris.

 

Asterism. A constellation. Sometimes misleadingly applied to a zodiacal Sign, but can be applied to the three signs of the same alement, considered collectively.

 

Asteroids. v. Solar System.

 

Astral Body. In occult terminology a replica of the physical body, but more subtle and tenuous. It penetrates every nerve, fibre and cell of the physical organism and is constantly in a supersensitive state of oscillation and pulsation. The psychic faculty within the astral body is impressionable to extra-sensory vibrations. The astrological concept is that of a magnetic field wherein the individual does most of his thinking, and from which he draws impressions by way of interpreting changes in the field due to cosmic radiation.

 

Astral Light. In occult terminology, the invisible region that surrounds the Earth, perceived by those who are psychically developed. Within its realm is recorded every condition, event or circumstance - past, present and future. It is called the "great terrestrial crucible," in which everything is resolved and perpetuated. The psychically gifted behold there, in panoramic detail, the histories of nations and individuals, and are able to reveal coming events by what they see mirrored on the astral screen. It has been spoken of as the Mercury of Nature.

 

Astral projection. In occult terminology, the partial or complete separation of the astral body from the physical body, and visiting another locality, near or far. This occurs in sleep - though, as a general rule, one does not recall the experience on waking. The adept can command his astral body to go any place he desires in order to make observations and investigations, and acquire essential information. Some dreams are the result of such travel episodes.

 

Astrolabe. A mechanical device, predecessor to the sextant, whereby mariners determined the time of day by the Sun, of the night by the stars, and the height and depth of mountains and valleys. The astrolabe of Christopher Columbus was on display at the Philadelphia Sesquicentennial. The oldest known example, called "The Mathematical Jewel," is of Persian origin. It was made by Ahmad and Mahud, sons of Ibraham (q.v.) the Astrologer of Isfahan, and is in the Lewis Evans collection in the Old Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, England. The invention is attributed by some to Hipparchus (q.v.) but others credit it to the Arabs, some 400 years prior.

 

Astrology. The science which treats of the influence upon human character of cosmic forces emanating from celestial bodies. It has been spoken of as the soul of astronomy. Its antiquity places it among the earliest records of human learning. To these ancient astrologers we owe the modern Science of Astronomy. According to Hindu lore Astrology reached its zenith some two hundred thousand years ago, and is presumed to have been first taught by the Manu who had charge of the fourth rootrace. In ancient times it enjoyed general acceptance, and was practiced by the Chaldeans, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and Arabs. It flourished in Europe during the 14th and 15th centuries. It is charged that the Spanish Inquisition was a cloak to disguise a secret purpose to stamp out Astrology. It was once termed Astromancy - divination by the stars.

Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Astrology. As practised by various authorities in various countries there are two fundamentally different methods, or approaches, to Astrology: the Geocentric and the Heliocentric. Geocentric Astrology is based upon calculations of the planetary positions as seen by the observer on the Earth, i.e, using the Earth as a center. Heliocentric Astrology bases its interpretations upon positions within the solar system with reference to the Sun as the center. While it is true that the Sun is the center, the effect of the motion as manifest on the Earth is the basis of most astrological interpretation. Therefore the vast majority of astrologers employ the geocentric calcu@lations of the planets' positions.

However, these terms are used by many astrologers in a different sense, i.e., heliocentric when considering changes of position by virtue of the body's motion in orbit, and geocentric when considering changes of position with reference to the observer, by reason of the observer's personal orbit around the Earth -- the revolution of the periphery of the Earth around the Earth's center. Thus considered the Signs are heliocentric divisions, or Heliarcs, while the Houses are geocentric divisions, or Geoarcs.

There are several distinct branches of Astrology:

Natal, or Genethliacal - having to do with the birth figure and the subsequent transits of the bodies and their Progressed, or average net progress. v. Directions, Progressions.

Horary: fundamentally a Figure cast for the birth-moment of an idea, a question, or an event. Practitioners of this branch of Astrology usually take the moment when the question is propounded.

Electional: an application of Horary art whereby to choose the most propitious moment for initiating a new enterprise, or commencing a journey, etc.

Mundane, also termed Judicial Astrology: a consideration of the current positions of the planets with respect to their influence upon entire populations, or portions thereof, by countries, cities or localities, at Ingresses, eclipses, ordinary Lunations and Full Moons, and major transits or conjunctions.

Medical: the application of the science to questions of health, chiefly as a diagnostic aid when confronted with baffling symptoms of disease and obscure ailments.

Meteorological, also known as Astro-Meteorology: the application of the science to the forecasting of weather conditions, earthquakes and severe storms.

Agricultural: an application of Astrology to the planting and the harvesting of crops.

 

Astromancy. A system of divination by means of the stars, the practice of which had much to do with the popular connotation of Astrology with fortune-telling, which modern scientific Astrology has had to live down.

 

Astrometeorology. Investigation of the relation between the Solar system bodies and the weather.

 

Astronomical unit. Mean distance of Earth to Sun, or 92,900,000 miles; employed as a unit for indicating intra-solar system distances.

 

Astronomos. The title given by the priests to the Initiate in the seventh degree of the reception of the mysteries in the Initiation at Thebes in Egypt.

 

Astronomy. The science that deals with the heavenly bodies: their positions, motions, magnitudes and conditions.

 

Astrotheology. A system of theology founded on what is known of the heavenly bodies, and of the laws which regulate their movements.

 

Aten. The solar disk, or more specifically the light that proceeds from the sun, as defined by Akhenaten, or Amenhotep IV (obit. circa 1397 B.C.), father-in-law of King Tutankamen, who promulgated a religion largely based on astrological teachings.

 

Athazer. An ancient term applied to the Moon when in conjunction with the Sun, or separated from it by an arc of 12, 45, 90 150, 160, or 180.

 

Aura. In occult terminology, a pyschic effluvium that emanates from human and animal bodies and inanimate objects. It is composed of electro-vital and electro-mental magnetism; an envelope surrounding that of which it partakes - visible only to the psychic. The aura is multi-colored and brilliant, or dull, according to the character or quality of the person or thing. To the seer, the aura of a person is an index to his hidden propensities.

 

Aurora Borealis, Northern Lights. Scientists associate the phenomena with unusual sun-spot activity, and astronomers are working on the theory that the sun-spot cycles, generally recognized as having some connection with economic trends, are the result of planetary movements. The most brilliant display of the Aurora Borealis in fifty years occurred on January 25, 1938. Transatlantic radio was interrupted and crowds in Holland, awaiting the birth of Princess Juliana's baby, cheered the display as a lucky omen for the little Princess Beatrix, who was born January 31, 1938, with 15 Aries on the Asc., and 6 Capricorn on the M.C. At this time Venus and the Sun were forming conjunctions with Jupiter, and Mars was forming a conjunction with Saturn.

 

Axis, Inclination of. The equators of rotating bodies appear never to parallel their orbits. Hence there is an inclination of the axis when considered in reference to the plane of the orbit. Within the solar system these inclinations arc, at this epoch, as follows: Mercury 72, Venus 60, the Earth 23½, Mars 25, Jupiter 3, Saturn 26, Uranus 102, Neptune 155, Pluto unknown. The inclination of the Sun's axis to the plane of the Earth's orbit is about 7. Its inclination to the plane of its own orbit is unknown, because the Sun's orbit is itself unknown. It is claimed by some that there is an additional motion of the Earth's axis amounting to 50" a century, making an orbit of about 2½ million years, in the course of which the North Pole and the South Pole successively point to the Sun instead of as at present to the Pole Star. This theory is advanced by way of explanation for successive Ice Ages.

 

Axial rotation: The diurnal motion of the Earth around its axis; also similar motion on the part of any other celestial body. v. Solar System.

 

Azimene. Said of a planet posited in certain weak or lame degrees or arcs which, if ascending at birth, were supposed to make the native blind, or lame, or otherwise physically afflicted.

 

Azimuth. A point of the horizon and a circle extending to it from the zenith; or an arc of the horizon measured clockwise between the south-point of the horizon and a vertical circle passing through the center of any object.